Loads of man under the action of extreme factors
In all cases, adaptation is not difficult to distinguish between physiological adaptation in the form of installation activities to a new level of reference.
Scientific and technical progress deepens the relationship of society with nature, pushes the limits of the used environment, expands the range of human habitability. The intensity of natural resource development is
related to the fact that large numbers of people work in the high latitudes, within the boundaries of the coastal shelf, in the deserts. Even the mountains, until recently accessible only to mountaineers, became the area of industrial development.
Our Earth is not revealed until the end of their pantries. Suffice it to recall Antarctica, often called the continent of the future. Found there economically viable mineral deposits are waiting for their development; or the Pamirs, where deposits have been discovered asbestos and resin, talc and rock crystal, rare and precious metals, coal and construction materials. A variety of minerals rich in the bowels of the Amur region. In the Dzhugdzhur mountains discovered deposits of aluminum raw materials, on the slopes of the Stanovoy range and in the mountains of Tukuringra — ore of antimony and tin.
The development of new deposits, the construction of industrial facilities and power plants, the laying of track roads, gas and oil pipelines, power lines — all this, taken together, require inflow of labour. Reached a large scale migration of population. People who lived previously in the Northern or middle latitudes, are heading South, residents of the South are attracted to areas of the Aurora Borealis and permafrost.
In this regard, were the development of environmental physiology, climatologia and bioclimatology, i.e. those areas of science that are associated with the study of the adaptation of the organism to various environmental factors, including climate and geographical.
Physiology and hygiene of modern production based on a large experimental material accumulated on adaptation, also used data on health-climate characteristics of the area.
It is widely known what a big role in the health of a person playing the variations in weather conditions. When changes in air temperature and weather changes in different landscape-climatic zones significantly changes the density of oxygen. According to the Central Institute of balneology and physiotherapy, in winter in the foothills of Central Asia the oxygen density is less than 290 g/ m3, whereas in the area of Verkhoyansk, it reaches its maximum of 360 g/ m3. The higher the air temperature and humidity, the lower the density of oxygen.
Themselves meteorological factors affect the adaptive mechanisms of the person. This particularly affects migrant, not adapted to local climatic conditions of the population. In some cases, the meteorological factors can contribute to pathological reactions, to have a negative impact on the health of people not only mental, but also physical labor. However, in this Chapter, we will not dwell on medical climatology data, and we note only that the meteorological factors change the reactivity and complicate the process of adapting it to new conditions of life.
In connection with the national economic objectives of owenia new areas attract attention especially physical labor of people in different climatic and geographical areas of the country is arid and hot areas, areas of low temperatures, in the Midlands.
The success of the implementation of human physical work depends on high to provide the body with oxygen. In the physiology of labor there is the concept of “aerobic capacity”, i.e. the idea of maximum for a given body’s level of oxygen consumption when presented with progressively increasing loads of power. This level has been called maximal oxygen consumption.
Maximum oxygen consumption in physically active men aged 20-60 years for the middle band of the USSR varies in the range of 40-50 ml/ min ” kg is Considered that physical activity of low intensity requires the consumption of no more than 15% of the total aerobic working capacity of the person, at a moderate tension consumes up to 30% and with hard work — more than 30%.
People working with a certain physical stress, we are able to maintain high efficiency of the body systems that provide oxygen transport, respiration and circulation. But these functions primarily to increased requirements in terms of effects on the body as temperature factors and factors specific to the highlands.