Adaptation adjustment, the adaptive response is the development of new biological properties
Adaptation adjustment, the adaptive response is the development of new biological properties of the organism, providing livelihoods Biosystems, when you change the external environment or the settings of the BIOS system .
Adaptive nature of life is one of its essential features: the entire functioning of the body proceeds in accordance with events in the external environment, changes which contribute to the changes of life. The aim and
the meaning of these changes in the body – in ensuring the preservation and maintenance of life of individuals and their development. Adaptation allows you to maintain a constant internal environment, increases the capacity of homeostatic mechanisms that communicates with the external environment and, ultimately, helps to keep the essential parameters of the organism in physiological limits, ensuring the stability of the system. According to academician P. K. Anokhin, every body is a dynamic combination of stability and variability, in which the adaptive response to protect it inherently vital constants.
The effect of the adaptation is also to increase the body’s ability to resist the destructive influence of factors of external environment, its resistance. The latter is based on the mechanisms provided for in evolution, and leads to an adaptive reaction norm of an individual or the species as a whole. It is clear that resistance is a very important indicator of the body. There are three types of adaptive changes is immediate, cumulative and evolutionary.
Short-term adaptation is characterized by continuously flowing the adaptive changes occurring in response to continuously changing environmental conditions.
Characteristic properties of urgent adaptation are considered:
– their appearance only with direct external impact, so an immediate response is not fixed in the body and disappear immediately after the removal of this influence;
– the nature and intensity of urgent adaptive reactions correspond exactly to the nature and strength of an external stimulus;
– immediate reactions the body can only respond to impact that, by its strength, nature, and time does not exceed the physiological capabilities of the organism.
Cumulative adaptation differs such changes that occur in response to prolonged repetitive internal or external influence. When this organism becomes able to respond faster, accurate and adequate responses on the level of available functional reserves. If repeated exposure correspond to certain laws of annoying changes (strength, duration, periodicity, etc.), the organism acquires the ability to perform most (in terms of volume, intensity, frequency of repetitions, etc.) then there is a transition of the adapted systems of the body to a qualitatively different state.
The essence of evolutionary adaptation is that if the changed conditions of the environment are retained long enough (assuming at least 10 generations), it leads to adaptive changes in gene structure, resulting in successive generations such conditions become “their”, natural.
Adaptive protective-adaptive reactions are divided into specific and asperities. The first of them provides stability and resistance only against the stimulus (typical examples – adaptation to the physical stress of training and the body’s immunity to certain types of infectious agents in the form of immunity). Nonspecific adaptive reactions contribute to increased resistance and the overall resistance of the organism to any disturbing factors in the environment. In humans, non-specific mechanism of adaptation have evolved considerably through purposeful volitional exercise, ensuring the growth of reserve opportunities of an organism.
Adaptation is not always to be regarded as a positive phenomenon. Depending on the type and characteristics of the stimulus, it may be accompanied by varying degrees of stimulation of the functional systems of the body, because in the process of adaptation they can not only activate, but also depleted.
In the health problem, the concept of adaptation should be considered Central. The essence of their interdependence can be formulated as follows: health is a state of equilibrium between the adaptive capabilities of the organism (human potential) and the ever-changing environment. This is manifested particularly clearly in the nature of age-related changes in adaptation. So, in the newborn is no hard and fast adaptation mechanisms, allowing a range of adaptation is quite wide, which allows it to survive in a fairly large borders of changing conditions of life. In the further formation of hard adaptation mechanisms is accompanied nevertheless not decrease, and the increase is mainly due to the socio-psychological factors – the number of perturbing factors. That’s why with age, a growing number of people with the breakdown of adaptation and having less satisfactory adaptation to the environmental conditions.
In addition to the age restriction limits and stiffness adaptation to a large extent this is due to two interdependent factors: on the one hand, the fact that instead of training the mechanisms of adaptation by natural factors of the existence of a person changes the conditions of existence, and the uselessness of adaptation reserves comfortable conditions of life. Therefore, the reserves of adaptive capacity in the body is always higher than their implementation.